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- ItemA Biography of Lucius Cornelius Balbus: Pompey's Veteran, Caesar's Agent, and Cicero's Acquaintance(Western Illinois University, 1990-05) Richards, David E.The following work is a biography of Lucius Cornelius Balbus (c. 100 - 32 B.C.). Balbus was a noteworthy participant in the political struggles of the final camps midst 50s. days of the Roman Republic. As an agent of both (first Pompey's, then Caesar's), he was in the of the drama played out by the Triumvirate in the 50s. He survived through the fall of the Republic and witnessed the beginning of the Principate. Besides his political connections and delegated duties with Pompey and Caesar, Balbus knew the renowned Cicero. During the Triumvirate, Cicero (along with Pompey and Crassus) was obliged to defend Balbus in court. Being Caesar's agent, Balbus gained the enmity of the opposition, and in order to eliminate him from Caesar's camp and from Rome, Caesar's antagonists accused Balbus of violating the lex Papia (a kind of 'Alien Act'). A successful conviction could have evicted Balbus from Rome, and thus ruined his career as Caesar's agent. The prosecution questioned the legitimacy of Balbus' citizenship as granted by Pompey some twenty years earlier for services rendered in the Sertorian War. Cicero, who had lost his own political autonomy to the Triumvirs, was pressured to defend Balbus and successfully secured his acquittal. The trial (56 B.C.) illustrates the cooperation of the Triumvirs and various questions regarding the importance and prestige of Roman citizenship. The biography first surveys the homeland and early career of Balbus. He was a Spaniard born in Gades (a Spanish coastal city, largely Phoenician in culture, bound to Rome by treaty). The study of Spain during the Late Republic reveals the social and cultural influences on the young Balbus. The chapter concludes with his service under Pompey the Great during the Sertorian War (79 - 72 B.C.) and his subsequent reward of citizenship. The second and third chapters deal with Balbus' activities and political associations in Rome and with Caesar. He served as Caesar's praefectus fabrum in 61 B.C. and during the Gallic Wars. After the important trial in 56, Balbus gained in significance until he finally served as one of Caesar's chief financial and administrative officers although he did not have an official government position or title during and after the Civil War. The study concludes with the dawn of the Augustan Age when Balbus became the first foreign born consul of Rome (40 B.C.). Balbus probably died shortly after Atticus in 32 B.C., and it is not known if he heard of the result of the Battle of Actium which inaugurated the Principate. The thesis involved extensive research into a variety of sources including Cicero's Episulae ad Atticum, and ad Familiares, and the Pro Balbo. Cicero's works contain the majority of the references to Balbus, but additional highlights are obtained from Caesar, Dio Cassius, Livy, Pliny, Plutarch, and Suetonius. The number of sources is not surprising since Balbus was truly an exceptional individual. He was born a provincial in the distant port of Gades, but later became acquainted with Pompey the Great, Cicero, and Octavian. But more importantly, he became the advisor and friend of Gaius Julius Caesar.
- ItemA Hancock County, Illinois Citizen Soldier's Experiences in the Civil War: The Diaries of Elisha Bentley Hamilton(Western Illinois University, 1970-06) Ryan, Daniel RichardElisha Hamilton was an ordinary man who became involved in an extraordinary war. He served three years in the Union Army as a quartermaster sergeant, and a first lieutenant in the 118th Illinois Infantry. The regiment saw service with Sherman at Chickasaw Bluffs in early 1863, with McClernand at Arkansas Post, with Grant at Vicksburg, and concluded its enlistment as part of General Nathaniel Banks' Department of the Gulf. Just like thousands of other Civil War soldiers, Hamilton, a resident of Carthage and later Quincy, Illinois, kept a diary of the day by day occurrences of his enlistment. Elisha Bentley Hamilton, son of the subject of this paper, presented six volumes of his father's war diaries to the Quincy Historical Society. These volumes dealt with the period of January 1, 1864 to December 31, 1865, with a break from November 1, 1864 to May 3, 1865. Five additional volumes had been distributed among the grandchildren of Elisha Hamilton. Mr. E. B. Hamilton, of Durango, Colorado, was very helpful in acquiring access to these volumes. Two diaries dealt with full years--1861 and 1866--and three others covered short periods of time--July 4 to September 8, 1863, November 1 to May 2, 1864, and a few days in December, 1864. The latter volume fills some of the unrecorded dates in the November 1, 1864 to May 2, 1865 volume. A small portion of these diaries form the basis of this study. Elisha Hamilton served as the 118th Illinois Infantry's quartermaster sergeant from the mustering of the regiment in late 1862 until January of 1864. This thesis is an editing of Hamilton's diaries from the fall of Vicksburg, on July 4, 1863, to his promotion as first lieutenant in Company B, on January 20, 1864. Much had been written regarding the military and political aspects of the Civil War, but little had been printed regarding the problem of supply at the regimental level. This is the major thrust of this paper. The editing of Hamilton's diaries vividly portray the problems and frustrations of the man who was the bottom rung in the quartermaster corps. Secondly, the volumes recount the minor events of a major war that swirled around the young man from Carthage. The editor's task has been twofold; to expand the readers' knowledge of the duties and importance of a regimental quartermaster sergeant, and to corroborate all of the historical events Hamilton mentioned. Quartermaster-sergeant Hamilton expressed joy and relief when Vicksburg surrendered on July 4, 1863. Within the week, the 118th Illinois was on the march as part of Sherman's expedition against Jackson, Mississippi. Hamilton's diary traces the movement to Jackson, activities during the siege, and the return to Vicksburg. The 118th Illinois remained at Vicksburg until August 8, at which time it was transferred to the Department of the Gulf with the Thirteenth Corps. After a week at Port Hudson, it was transported to Carrollton, Louisiana, to await the start of the Bayou Teche expedition. This attempt to gain a foothold in Texas failed and the 118th Illinois, now part of the Nineteenth Corps, marched to Donaldsonville, Louisiana. During the first week of January, 1864, the regiment was transferred to Port Hudson. The 118th Illinois remained in the District of Port Hudson and Baton Rouge until it was mustered out of service in November, 1865.
- ItemA History of the 24th Iowa Infantry 1862-1865(Western Illinois University, 1974-08) Kimble, Harvey H. Jr.On April 15, 1861, President Lincoln issued a proclamation calling for seventy-five thousand volunteers from the states not in rebellion. While not yet fifteen years old, the State of Iowa answered this call and future calls at an enviable rate. The state was credited with 76,309 enlistments; more than one half of Iowa's male population of military age bore arms. Forty-eight infantry regiments, nine cavalry regiments, and four artillery companies were organized during the four years of fighting. Iowa men were to win positions of high command during the war, and the state's regiments were prominent in most of the battles in the Western Theater. One of the most interesting infantry regiments to see service was the Twenty-fourth Regiment of Iowa Volunteer Infantry. Colonel Eber C. Byam, a Methodist minister, organized this unit which was often referred to as the "Iowa Temperance Regiment." The Temperance Regiment, recruited mainly in east-central Iowa, first saw action in the Vicksburg Campaign, took an active part in the disastrous Red River Expedition, and was one of only three Iowa regiments to support General Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley. On July 17, 1865, the Twenty-fourth Regiment of Iowa Volunteer Infantry was mustered out of service in Savannah, Georgia, where the unit had been serving as a rear guard to the army of General Sherman. Although the 24th Iowa was a distinguished and battle-tested regiment of both the Western and Eastern Theaters of the Civil War, little has been formally written of its history. No published regimental history is known to exist, and summary sketches often describe the role of the 24th as viewed by the regiments that fought with it, rather than in terms of the 24th Iowa's personal achievements. The thesis presents the regiment's history chronologically. Chapters cover: Iowa and the Civil War, the organization of the "Temperance Regiment," winter camp at Helena, Arkansas, the Vicksburg Campaign, the Red River Campaign, operations in the Shenandoah Valley, and guard duty in Savannah, Georgia, until the end of the war. While this thesis is designed primarily to be descriptive rather than analytical, a Civil War regimental history must include elements of state and local history, military history, and political history. A small contribution in these areas is attempted. The following primary sources from the Iowa State Department of History and Archives Library were used extensively: A. A. Rigby Diary, Amasa Allen Civil War Letters, Ezra W. Webb Papers, Diary of Levi L. Hoag in the Katherine Gue Leonard Collection, James H. Shanklin Letters, John N. Shedenhalm's Civil War Daybook, 24th Iowa's Infantry Papers, and a Charles Lucas Letter. Besides the above accounts written by members of the 24th Iowa, the Annals of Iowa provided two summary sketches of the 24th. "First Year's Medical History of the Twenty-fourth Iowa," by John F. Ely in Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States - Iowa and "A Soldier's Letters from the Field," by Charles Lucas in Iowa Historical Record provided valuable information. Since the majority of the primary sources were recorded by the common soldiers of the 24th Iowa, the regimental history is intended to reflect the view of the men of the ranks whose goal it was to preserve the Union rather than to rise to position of prominence by military successes. Although slower to answer their country's call, they joined at a time of real need. Perhaps Lincoln's third call in 1862, of which the men of the 24th were a part, enlisted as real patriots who served in the main, not for adventure or glory, but out of a deep sense of duty.
- ItemA Secondary Data Analysis of Staff Reaction to the Transition From a Linear Jail to a Direct Supervision Model in Kane County, Illinois(Western Illinois University, 2010-04) Woodruff, Lynne MarieThe Kane County Sheriff's Office Jail in Illinois had traditionally been of the linear design for well over a hundred years. Linear means that the cells are arranged along a common hallway more or less in a line, resulting in fewer staff necessary to supervise the inmates. One officer would be responsible for several cellblocks daily, checking on each at least every 30 minutes. This meant that the inmates were on their own basically for 30 minutes until an officer came by to check on them. Not surprisingly, rule infractions and violence were common, as was vandalism. Officers spent years working in this environment, in which the more violent an inmate was or the more severe the charge, the greater the number of bars and doors separating the inmate from the officers. Officers complained to each other about feelings of stress and burnout from working in this environment. Correctional officer stress has been researched in depth over the years. Stress can lead to burnout of the officers. Burnout consists of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. In 2006, Kane County officials knew that a new jail was needed due to the deterioration and overcrowding of the old jail. The officials chose a facility based on the Direct Supervision model, in which officers are assigned to each cellblock or pod and stay inside with the inmates. Officers and staff began to complain to each other about the chosen design and how they feared an increase in stress and violent working environment in the new facility. In Neutralizing the Negative Impact of Organizational Change during the Transition Process, the author wrote about addressing staff anxiety when transitioning into a new facility. (Smith, 1993) However, she did not address the impact moving to the new facility would have on the officers' levels of stress and burnout after the move. Nor did the article address the feelings of officer safety in the new facility. It appears that there is no research into the impact of moving into a new facility with a new direct supervision philosophy on the officers' level of stress, burnout and feeling of safety. Administrators were curious to see what the impact on officers and staff was during the transition from linear to direct supervision facilities. Since no research was found on this specific event, KCSO commissioned an internal study of the effects of stress and burnout on staff during the transition from a linear model to a direct supervision model. The surveys included questions about feelings of stress, burnout and safety. They also asked for background information about the respondents including gender, race, age, length of service, rank and education level to see if any of these factors were significant in the officers' feelings of stress, burnout or safety. Officers and staff were surveyed prior to and one year after the move to the new facility. This researcher analyzed these two surveys and the results are presented in this research document.
- ItemA Study of the Board of Governors BA Degree Program(Western Illinois University, 1992-07) Baars, Judith, AnnThe traditional college student population--recent high school graduates--is rapidly being displaced by a more non-traditional population--older students, especially women, in need of vocational preparation to enter or move upward in the occupational marketplace (Patterson and Blank, 1985). In order to appropriately respond to this shift in student populations, post-secondary institutions must begin to explore and consider rudimentary student characteristics--demographic information, learner motivation/interest, learner needs, and institutional needs. Current information indicates Western Illinois University's (WIU) current male population accounts for 59 % of the total Board of Governors population (BGU Semi-Annual Report 6/91). This finding is contrary to the findings of Patterson and Blank (1985). This enrollment anomaly is of particular interest to WIU Board of Governors BA degree staffers, in that it may potentially impact in a number of policy areas: affirmative action, rules, regulations, resource allocations, recruitment and programming. By examining both (a) the demographic characteristics of Board of Governors BA degree students, as well as (b) their objectives and/or rationales for enrolling in the program, it may be possible to both explain the enrollment anomaly as well as identify self-reported needs of the non-traditional student. This study attempted to develop a student profile of non-traditional students enrolled in the Board of Governors BA degree program at both Western Illinois University and the other four BGU institutions (Chicago State University, Eastern Illinois University, Governors State University, Northeastern Illinois University). A questionnaire developed by the researcher was administered to a random stratified sample of 308 Board of Governors BA degree students enrolled at Western Illinois University. In addition to requesting demographic information, questions were constructed to assess what attracted the students to the program, what made them decide to go to school at this time, whether they were full-time or part-time students and their occupational status. Objectives and influences in their decision to enter the degree program were rated on a 'likert-scaled' instrument. This information was compared to anecdotal data for the other four Board of Governors BA degree programs. Questions addressed were: In terms of the issue of gender, does the student population attending the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program significantly differ from the student population attending the other four Board of Governors BA degree programs? Are there significant differences between the demographic characteristics of students in the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program and those students enrolled in the other four Board of Governors degree programs? Do self-reported rationales for males in the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program significantly differ from the rationales reported by females in the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program? It was determined that, overall, the five institutions displayed remarkably similar male-female ratios. In almost all cases males outnumbered females. It was determined that demographic characteristics in general resembled each other across institutions even though certain specific subtleties did emerge. However, these delete primarily with locale-related issues. The female and male responses for Board of Governors BA degree students at WIU were very similar on all factors, i.e., location, learning, social, personal, and work, with females placing slightly more importance on all areas except work. The issue of work did yield a significant difference on the Univariate F-test and indicated that males were more likely than females to rate issues related to work as being important. One conclusion that can be reached on the basis of this study is that occupation is the driving factor behind male enrollment in the Board of Governors BA degree program at WIU. A possible explanation for this may be that men are more likely than women to be employed in middle management positions, and if they do not have a bachelors degree, they may be encouraged to obtain one. They need this type of program, which is not campus-based, to finish this degree. Being employed in fulltime careers may make taking on-campus courses impossible. This degree, unlike many non-traditional degrees, allows for flexibility in the manner in which credit is earned.
- ItemAdelaide Johnson: Sculptor of the Woman's Movement(Western Illinois University, 1985-04) Burton, Shirley J.This thesis is an investigation of the life of the sculptor Adelaide Johnson. One of the most remarkable women to come out of west central Illinois, Johnson spent her childhood in a log cabin, and received her education in a one-room country school. As an adult she became an intellectual whose political art was presented on two continents and a feminist who marched with suffragists in London and Washington D.C. and counted Susan B. Anthony a close friend. While Johnson has been the subject of scholarship in her role as a professional artist, her biography has not yet appeared. This study has attempted to emphasize Johnson's personal, rather than professional life, and to find the reasons she was able to evade her seemingly inevitable narrow, domestic existence. Johnson facilitated the task by leaving 35,000 pages of manuscript, most of it now a part of the Adelaide Johnson Collection of the Library of Congress. These papers include diaries which she kept for over sixty years, records of sittings, essays, speeches, and her personal correspondence. Interviews with people who knew her provided additional insight, particularly Mata Grace Keebler, with whom Johnson lived during the last ten years of her life. This study concludes that Johnson, influenced by her pioneer heritage, developed into an independent, self-sufficient person who believed in her own ability to overcome obstacles, These qualities also made her a feminist who freed herself from her nineteenth century female existence by becoming an artist, defying convention, and becoming a self-defining woman.
- ItemAirborne and Underwater Vocalizations of the Antarctic Ross Seal (Ommatophoca Rossii)(Western Illinois University, 2006) Stacey, Rita M.The Antarctic Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii) is the least known of all the pinnipeds primarily due to the harsh environment they inhabit. On only three occasions have researchers been able to make recordings of sounds from this species. Audiocassette tapes were analyzed from three different collectors spanning 34 years: 1) in 1999/2000 Ian Stirling recorded aerial and underwater vocalizations in the Ross Sea, 2) in 1997 Tracy Rogers recorded underwater vocalizations off the back of a ship near Davis Station in the Davis Sea, and 3) in 1966 Carleton Ray recorded in both mediums in Robertson Bay near Cape Ad are and South Coulman Island in the Ross Sea. The objectives of this study on the recordings of Ross seal sounds were to: 1) classify airborne and underwater vocalizations, 2) identify frequency and time characteristics for each vocalization, 3) examine differences in vocalization characteristics by month/year, 4) examine differences in vocalization characteristics by location, and 5) examine differences in vocalization characteristics by sex of the seal. The Ross seals' vocal repertoire consists of 12 calls (6 aerial and 6 underwater). Three of the six underwater calls showed geographic variation, one underwater call showed differences over thirty years, and one aerial call varied by gender of the seal. The number of vocalizations in Antarctic seals varies with the mating system. The Ross seal has an intermediate number of sounds compared to other Antarctic species. More investigations are needed to understand the acoustic behavior and lifestyle of the elusive Ross seal.
- ItemAn Evaluation Study of Three Illinois Police Departments Use of Force Training Programs(Western Illinois University, 2006-04) Baldowsky, Jason"The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of force training programs currently in use by three Illinois police departments. Harvard, Fox Lake, and Round Lake Beach were the municipal police department that participated in this survey in an effort to evaluate the quality of their use of force training programs. Manpower and budget constraints made training difficult and these departments were looking for a way to provide the most realistic, practical training under these constraints. To evaluate the use of force training programs this research first needed to discover what the dynamics of a use of force encounter were. The level of force used most often, the suspect resistance level encountered most often, and the conditions of a shoot/ no shoot encounter, were the focus in this section of the study. These findings were then compared to the training offered in an effort to evaluate how practical the training is. Most force used by the police officers in this study was relatively low, with contact control indicated as the level used most. The same was true of suspect resistance level, as verbal non-compliance was the most common level encountered. Shoot/ no shoot encounters were reported as mostly occurring at a close range with subjects often moving. When frequency distributions were examined the years of police experience more than any other variable, had the most impact on a use of force encounter. Officers with over five years of police experience used lower levels of force, encountered lower levels of suspect resistance, but were more likely to be involved in a shoot/ no shoot situation. The level of force where officers received most of their training was in the use of deadly force. Additionally, the majority of firearms training occurred at close range but with no movement by either the officers or targets. Because of the small number of respondents in this study (50), no significant relationships could be definitively proven regarding the use of force, and use of force training."
- ItemAn Historical Study of the Civilian Conservation Corps in Illinois(Western Illinois University, 1967-05) Mance, FrankThe purpose of the study was to write a brief history of the Civilian Conservation Corps in Illinois. The writer was particularly interested in ascertaining the following: (1) the objectives of the CCC; (2) the organization of the CCC at federal, state and camp levels; (5) the cooperation of government and private agencies on various levels; (h#) the camp locations in Illinois; (5) the various types of CCC work projects; (6) the work accomplishments of the CCC; (7) the extent of COO operations in Illinois; (8) the costs of operations; (9) the experience of a CCC enrollee; (10) public reaction to the CCC in Illinois; and (11) the impact that the OCC had on Illinois. Procedure was traditional and both primary and secondary sources were utilized. First, the secondary sources in the Western Illinois University, the Parlin-Ingersol Library in Canton, and the Illinois Historical Library were consulted. Primary sources, however, provided the bulk of pertinent information. Congressional hearings were found in the Illinois State Library. The writer researched the Chicago Tribune and the Illinois State Journal dating from April, 1955, to January, 1950, in the newspaper office of the Illinois Historical Society. Since the great bulk of the CCC records are stored in Record Group 55 at the National Archives in Washington, D. C., and these records proved to be the most fruitful source of information, the writer utilized them extensively. In addition to using the records in Record Group 55, the writer relied upon records in Record Group 79. Record Group 55 1s the major file for the CCC, while Record Group 79 contains information about the National Park Service. Staff members of the National Archives indicated that some of the CCC records had been destroyed. The thesis is organized into the following chapters: I. A Description of the Conditions of the Nation which Led to the Establishment of the CCC; II. The CCC in the State of Illinois; III. The Extent of CCC Operations in Illinois; IV. Life in the CCC, and, V. Evaluation of the CCC in Illinois. Chapter I discusses the general economic conditions which prevailed in the United States, the problems of unemployed youth, the need to do conservation work, and how the New Deal meant to cope with these problems. This chapter also discusses the creation and establishment of the Emergency Conservation Work program, its purposes and objectives, and its organizational structure on the federal level. Chapter II covers the economic conditions of the State of Illinois and its problems dealing with relief payments to the unemployed. It also records the beginning of Illinois participation in ECW. The first work projects are identified, along with a description of the types of work in the various types of CCC camps which existed in Illinois. Special emphasis has been placed on the work accomplishments of CCC camps in state, county, and municipal parks. ~ case study of CCC work projects in Camp New Salem, which was located in the New Salem State Park, is presented along with some pictures and a blueprint of work projects. i complete listing of all work accomplishments of the CCC in the United States and in Illinois is included. Chapter III supplies statistics pertaining to the number of CCC personnel, the number of CCC camps, the amount of work completed and the dollar value of work completed in the United States and the State of Illinois. In addition, data are provided pertaining to the total amount of money which was expended in Illinois and the United States. A discussion comparing the costs-per-man-per-year of the CCC and the NYA and the WPA is included. In addition, a comparison of work done in Illinois with CCC work done elsewhere in the United States is presented along with a map showing the location of CCC camps in Illinois during the year of 1935. Chapter IV presents a discussion of the selection of CCC enrollees on the state, regional and local levels; the physical and financial prerequisites for joining the CCC, and the pay are given along with allotments received by the dependents of the enrollees. It also presents life in the CCC by describing the physical plant of a typical camp, a normal work day, the staff of a CCC camp, educational and recreational opportunities in the CCC, discipline, food, and medical problems and sanitary conditions which many Illinois enrollees faced. Also included are a few letters written by Illinois enrollees giving their impressions of the CCC. In Chapter V a discussion is presented pertaining to partisan politics in the 0CC, and the influences and attitudes of trade unions in regard to the CCC. It also contains a discussion of the cooperation and relationship of the CCC and the State of Illinois, public reaction to the CCC in the United States, Puerto Rico and Illinois. In addition, the immediate and long-term impact of the CCC on the State of Illinois is discussed which concludes with an assessment in regard to the justification of the CCC. A series of appendices gives detailed statistical information about the varied operations of the CCC in Illinois, with statistics for the total CCC program included for comparison purposes. CONCLUSIONS Since there was a depression in the 1950's which drained the financial resources of the states and private agencies, and since there was need to accomplish a good deal of conservation work, the administration of Franklin D. Roosevelt was justified in creating the Emergency Conservation Work agency. The organization of the CCC was cumbersome and complex, thereby creating an environment in which partisan politics could and did exist. Unions hampered the enrollees from being more proficient in the learning of skills. The CCC acted as a stimulus to the state to the degree that Illinois increased and improved its park system. Many projects of historical value were restored and preserved as a result of CCC work. The work accomplishments of the CCC were useful projects since they helped to preserve natural resources, increased the productivity of the land, and developed recreational areas. Illinois farmers were taught conservation techniques by the coo. Many men in the Illinois Conservation Department received experience in the CCC. Conservation progress was pushed forward from ten to twenty years. The costs-per-man-per=year were rather high. The total costs of the CCC program did not equal the total value of the work completed. CCC expenditures did aid needy citizens of Illinois, and did stimulate the economy of Illinois, thereby lessening the financial strain on the State of Illinois. Camp life generally speaking provided the enrollees with a wholesome environment. Therefore, health gains were achieved. However, due to isolated conditions, and the lack of potable water, sanitary conditions at times left much to be desired. The rate of desertions from the CCC was relatively high. Although the CCC education program was fragmentary, it provided one of the best opportunities available during the thirties for inexperienced young men. Thousands of illiterates were taught to read and write in the CCC. Cooperation between the federal government and the State of Illinois was excellent. An excellent rapport prevailed with local municipal governments, park districts, local schools, local clubs, soil conservation districts, drainage districts, and university officials and the CCC. The general public in Illinois and elsewhere in the United States (with the exception of Puerto Rico) gave a favorable reception to the COO. Both in Illinois and in the nation at large the COC programs were approved by the populace and the positive contributions made to the Illinois economy and the Illinois work force clearly outweighed any disadvantage inherent in the program. Over the years, changes were made and greater or less emphasis was placed on one or another phase of CCC operations. The 0CC could not be justified strictly as a training and educational agency, as a work agency doing conservation work, or a necessity to our national defense. However, as a work-relief agency doing all of the above, the CCC was justified. The CCC remained what its designers planned, a work-relief-training enterprise with overtones stressing health, education and self-reliance.
- ItemAnti-Semitism in the New Deal Era: The Case of Father Coughlin(Western Illinois University, 1970-07) Wolfe, Thomas AnthonyThis study is a look at the causes, manifestations, and ramifications of racial and religious bigotry in the United States--through the medium of Father Charles E. Coughlin. As a by-product of this study, perhaps one can gain a clearer insight into the workings of a demagogue-a name that clearly fits this famous "radio priest" from Royal Oak, Michigan, Anti-Semitism has always had its followers in the United States, especially in the Northeast where most Jews live, but elsewhere as well. The great influx of southern and eastern European Jews around the turn of the twentieth century found it difficult to assimilate because of their markedly different cultures--even when they chose to do so. Jews did progress in the United States, but they did so at a time of economic depression and fear of yet another war--conditions that exacerbated tensions rather than abated them. As an anti-Semitic propagandist, Coughlin was, for a time, second in notoriety only to the German-American Bund. He was an embarrassment to his church, the administration, and the nation at large. His activities helped create anti-Catholic hostility from many areas at a time when the bitter Smith-Hoover campaign of 1928 was all too fresh in the memory of many Americans. A serious misconception concerning the structure of the Catholic Church manifested itself during Coughlin's time. This was the idea that the Church was rigidly unified to the point that the views of one priest must also be the views of his superiors, including the Pope. American non-Catholics in the 1930's never really understood just who a priest's superiors were and how much authority they had. In fact, the Roman Catholic Church is about as unified as the Democratic Party. Within the entire hierarchy of the Church, there were but two people who could silence Coughlin--his bishop, and the Pope. This misconception led some Americans to wonder if the Catholic Church were not basically antisemitic. Others wondered the same thing about Christianity itself. What little evidence there is on the subject unavoidably leads to the unhappy conclusion that Christian churches, directly or indirectly, have nourished various notions of anti-Semitism. Thus, it is not so surprising that Coughlin and his followers--mainly Catholics but almost all Christians--should have been anti-Semitic. In the case of Father Coughlin, it would seem that his seminary training may well have nurtured anti-Semitism. His religious training had been rather narrow, and it is reflected in his later writings and speeches. He would always reject as necessarily evil anything or anybody non-Christian. Americans have been by no means the first people to entertain notions of anti-Semitism. Indeed, everything that Hitler did to the Jews during his reign of terror had been done earlier by Christians--save, of course, mass annihilation, and even at that, there were many blood baths, notably the Russian pogroms. As soon as Christianity had been introduced to Rome, the Church began placing restrictions on Jews. These varied but increased in intensity. The idea was to keep Jews from "contaminating" Christian life. This practice continued through the centuries. The depression created fertile ground for many demagogues, but none had more success than Father Coughlin, whose popularity among millions of radio listeners in the early 1930's had been matched by very few men. Coughlin's ambition soon over-reached itself. He renounced Roosevelt in 1936; his handpicked candidate, William Lemke, suffered a resounding defeat at the polls; and Coughlin had to search for a new tactic if he ever again were to match his earlier popularity. Coughlin's anti-Semitic campaign began in 1937, reached a popularity peak in 1938 and early 1939, then slowly declined until his radio program was forced off the air in 1940, and his magazine was forced from the mails within a few months after Pearl Harbor. His basic theory about the Jews was deceptively simple. Communism had been the creation of Jews who have worked diligently to spread it everywhere. Nazism was merely a defense mechanism against communism and could never be as bad as communism--the living antichrist. This message Coughlin never tired of reiterating. Some people took the priest seriously and were moved to form groups like the Christian Front. Many ugly incidents were recorded, especially in New York City. Coughlin's forced retirement robbed a mass movement of its leader, but by 1942 the movement had already spent itself. The chief things to be gained from this study are a greater awareness of the dangers of mass movements, whether they are characterized by racial or religious bigotry coupled with demagoguery or by some other manifestation. It is equally important to know what causes them, for knowledge of their causes is surely half their cure.
- ItemChinese Settlement in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri(Western Illinois University, 1973-01) Willis, Reginald LevisThe purpose of this thesis is to examine the settlement patterns of Chinese in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri from 1870 to the present time. Three hypotheses were formed after preliminary studies of census data: (l) Chinese are clustered in university communities and transportation centers, (2) Chinese have not settled in large numbers in industrial centers, and (3) after an initial settlement in a community, Chinese tend to persist in that community. Several cities with above or below average numbers of Chinese were identified by regression analysis and investigated. The information obtained in these community studies supported the three hypotheses on Chinese settlement in the study area. Chinese are a small part of the general American population and the majority live in large cities. Chinatowns within the study area are present only in the two largest cities, Chicago and St. Louis. However, some Chinese have located in small and medium sized cities in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri. The function of a city is important in attracting Chinese; places with government agencies or large universities attract more than industrial centers. The character of the Chinese population has changed through time. The majority of Chinese in the area from 1870 until 1910 were laundrymen whose families remained in China. Restaurant workers and laundrymen were the largest element in the Chinese population between 1910 and 1950. Chinese professional men and students became an important part of the population after 1950. The number of women increased rapidly after the Second World War, and the Chinese population in the study area now has a normal ratio of men to women. Chinese settlement was affected by the immigration laws restricting immigration. The occupational shifts are a result of the government policy of admitting certain classes of immigrants.
- Item"Dust and Ashes" The Meridian Mississippi Race Riot of 1871(Western Illinois University, 2003-05) Compton, Cecil Garland IIIThe subject of this thesis is the Meridian Mississippi Race Riot of 1871. This study's purpose was to investigate the factors and conditions of Reconstruction era Eastern Mississippi and Western Alabama that provided the catalyst for the riot, provide the first lengthy narrative of the Meridian Riot, challenge long held assumptions about who was responsible for the fire that destroyed part of the downtown business district, challenge long held notions regarding who was responsible for the gunshots that began the riot and describe the effects of the riot on the citizens of Meridian. The sources used to complete this study included Testimony taken by the Congressional Committee formed to Investigate the Affairs of the Late Insurectory States, records created by the Freedmen's Bureau, Local and State bodies that investigated the riot, private manuscripts, and local and national newspapers. The findings of this study concluded that although freedmen were traditionally held responsible for the business district fire, it is highly likely that the Republican Mayor of Meridian, William Sturgis, and a member of his police force, Thomas Pelton, may have played a significant role in planning and executing the blaze. Following the examination of all available sources this study also produced considerable doubt that Warren Tyler, who was credited for firing the gun shots that started the riot in the courtroom and killing justice Eikner Bramlette was entirely responsible for starting the Meridian Riot of 1871.
- ItemEasy and Wide-Ranging Vicinal Difunctionalization of Alkenes(Western Illinois University, 2009-12) Gottam, Hima BinduRegio- and stereoselective 1,2-addition to alkenes resulting in the incorporation of two different vicinal functional groups is a highly sought synthetic manipulation. Here in we wish to report our results from a systematic exploration of the co-addition of I-Nu across the double bonds using in situ generated acyl-hypoiodite intermediates 78 and 80 (not shown here) obtained from the oxidation of elemental iodine with hypervalent iodine reagents, 44 and 65 respectively, a variety of nucleophiles can be used, often as cosolvents in the reaction or tethered nucleophiles in the substrate as in 102 to obtain the highly functionalized products shown in the box. [Graphic]
- ItemFort Mercer and Fort Mifflin: The Battle for the Delaware River and the Importance of the American Riverine Defenses during Washington's Siege of Philadelphia(Western Illinois University, 1996-08) Browne, Gregory Michael"This thesis presents an in-depth study of General William Howe's Philadelphia campaign and the ensuing battles with the American river defenses and Pennsylvania navy over control of the Delaware River. Through the available literature, and supported by abundant primary sources, a story unfolds of the siege of Philadelphia. A chronology of events moves the reader from Howe's decision to move on the American capital Philadelphia, through the capture of the city, Washington's subsequent encirclement of Howe, and the two generals' struggle to control the Delaware. In 1777, the British believed they could win the war in America by effectively cutting off the northern colonies form the rest of the rebellious colonies. Their strategy called for General John Burgoyne's army, consisting of British regulars, Hessian auxiliaries, Canadian volunteers, and Indians, to move south from Canada to Lake Champlain. He was to take Fort Ticonderoga, and proceed to Albany. General William Howe's army, supported by British warships under his brother Admiral Richard Howe, was to proceed up the Hudson, seize the American fortifications along the way, and link up with Burgoyne in Albany. The British also hoped that the threat they posed to the Hudson River valley, and its vital waterway, would force Washington to fight a general engagement, which they believed he would lose. During the summer of 1777, General Howe assembled an expeditionary force at New York City. However, he was not planning to move north, but rather to sail south, attack Pennsylvania, and capture the American capital. Howe was sure Washington would not allow the capital to fall and would be forced to fight a general engagement he could not win. Howe also was led to believe that upon his arrival in Pennsylvania he could count on strong local Loyalist support. The British government assumed that once Washington was defeated and Philadelphia was under British control, Howe could garrison the city with Loyalist troops and sail back north to the Hudson to complete his rendezvous with Burgoyne. Inexplicably, Howe squandered months of good campaigning weather, until finally in late July he sailed out of New York to Chesapeake Bay. Landing at Head of Elk, Maryland, he proceeded slowly towards Philadelphia. Washington moved his army from New Jersey to Philadelphia to stop the British advance, but was defeated at the battle of Brandywine, and forced to retreat. Howe captured Philadelphia on September 26, 1777. Howe had accomplished his mission but found he had placed himself in a precarious position. There was no great outpouring of Loyalist support. Washington's army, though beaten at Brandywine, was still intact and formidable. The Americans had encircled the British army and disrupted their long supply lines. American river forts and obstructions, in concert with Commodore John Hazelwood's Pennsylvania navy, had closed the Delaware River to Admiral Howe's efforts to resupply his brother. General Howe's conquest of Philadelphia did not produce the desired results he had hoped for. Unlike campaigns fought in Europe where the capture of the enemy's capital had devastating , political, economic, and psychological consequences, the capture of the American capital did not have the same impact on the fledgling country. Furthermore, with cold weather fast approaching and the accompanying freeze of the Delaware, it was imperative that the river forts be eliminated. Without control of the river, so vital as a supply and communication line, Howe and his besieged army would be forced to abandon the city or be starved into submission. During the next two months, Howe and Washington struggled for control of the Delaware. The three American forts, Mercer, Mifflin, and Billingsport, and the Pennsylvania navy, heroically battled the British, sinking two large warships, inflicting damage on many others, and defeating an assault by crack Hessian troops. Finally the forts began to fall. Billingsport, which guarded the first line of underwater obstructions known as chevaux-de-frise, was taken. Then on November 15th, after days of heavy bombardment by British land and naval artillery, Fort Mifflin's tenacious defenders were evacuated. Finally, on November 20th, as a large British force approached Fort Mercer, it too was abandoned and destroyed. The Pennsylvania navy, having lost the protection of the forts, made a valiant escape upriver past the Philadelphia shore batteries. Although many of the smaller galleys went undetected, the larger American ships were fired on and severely damaged. Rather than allowing them to fall into British hands, they were set on fire by their crews and destroyed. The British had broken the siege of Philadelphia and averted disaster. But it was a Pyrrhic victory. Howe had lost two warships, some of his best officers, and many troops. But perhaps more critical was the time lost. It had become impossible for him to assist Burgoyne who was defeated in October at Saratoga, New York. Howe set up winter quarters in the American capital while Washington's army camped at Valley Forge. The British strategy to end the war in 1777 had failed."
- ItemRedefining Friends and Enemies in British Fantasy: Sidekicks and Anti-Sidekicks in the Lord of the Rings and the Harry Potter Series(Western Illinois University, 2017-05) Salmonson, Erica LeighThis thesis project examines characters in British fantasy through a sidekick and anti-sidekick lens, specifically focusing on The Lord of the Rings and the Harry Potter series. Before analyzing events in these texts, I first define the fantasy genre, the traditional hero and the fairy-tale hero, and the sidekick trope. These definitions are important to establish because the characters deemed heroes, Frodo Baggins and Harry Potter, are not traditional heroes; they are fairy-tale heroes who cannot be successful without their sidekicks. In Chapter 1, I analyze Samwise Gamgee, from The Lord of the Rings, and Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger, from the Harry Potter series, as sidekicks—ones who fill the sidekick trope and prove they are necessities to their respective stories. While many readers and fans regard these three characters as merely friends, these characters prove useful to the overall story and provide insight into the British fantasy genre. In Chapter 2, I examine Gollum, from The Lord of the Rings, and Draco Malfoy, from the Harry Potter series, as anti-sidekicks—ones who do not have their fairy-tale heroes’ best interests in mind, but are essential to their heroes and their heroes’ missions. Both of these anti-sidekicks are complex; they fulfill characteristics of the sidekick trope, but they are never friendly or care for their respective heroes. After thorough examination, I come to the conclusion that these anti-sidekicks are a clear blueprint of what their fairy-tale heroes could have become. An in-depth analysis of these British fantasy stories through the sidekick and anti-sidekick lens provides an enhanced reading of these texts, coming to a new, insightful conclusion of characters who are often cast aside.
- ItemStatistical Analysis of the Feeding Call of Nestling/Fledgling Barred Owls (Strix Varia) in West-Central Illinois(Western Illinois University, 1997) Woodyatt, Keston RoyFeeding calls of 12 barred owl (Strix varia) nestlings/fledglings from 5 nests, at 3 locations, in Macomb, McDonough County, Illinois, were studied during the spring and early summer from 1991 to 1993 in the laboratory and natural settings. A total of 246 nestling/fledgling feeding calls were recorded and analyzed. The duration and frequency were analyzed for each call using Canary software for the Macintosh computer. The feeding calls recorded in the laboratory were no different than those recorded in natural settings. Principal Component and Discriminant Function analyses of the feeding calls of 12 barred owls were conducted on 4 study groups for determination of any differences. Three study groups were named based on their locations in Macomb, Illinois: Chase Street, Lafayette Street, and Spring Lake. These study groups consisted of adult barred owls and nestling/fledglings recorded at nest sites. A fourth group, the laboratory group, was comprised of 4 nestlings (2 from each nest) from 2 separate family groups recorded in a laboratory setting. The feeding calls of the 4 study groups were statistically different. The structure of the feeding call of nestling/fledgling barred owls was simple compared to the feeding calls of other young altricial birds. The barred owl nestling/fledgling feeding call usually began between 6.5 and 7.0 kHz and maintained this frequency until the end of the call where it sharply dropped to around 4 kHz. The call was approximately one second in duration. The feeding call of barred owl nestlings/fledglings was found not to be age-dependent. The feeding call of a nestling barred owl was the same as the feeding call of the fledgling barred owl. Discriminant Function Analysis classified the 246 nestling/fledgling feeding calls into one of the 4 study groups. On average, 84.0% of the calls were matched with the correct study group.
- ItemThe Behavioral and Physical Development of Barred Owl (Strix Varia) Nestlings in Illinois(Western Illinois University, 1977) Varchmin, Thomas Edward MichaelThe behavioral and physical development of 22 Barred Owl (Strix varia Barton) nestlings in 9 nests in McDonough County, Illinois, was studied from March to May in 1973 and 1974. Five eggs and one embryo were measured and weighed. Hatching, fledging, and mortality information was recorded. Physical development was studied by comparative measurements of culmen, claw 3, a central rectrix, primaries 9 and 10, and weight, and by noting change in egg tooth and development of body plumage. Eighteen nestlings were measured to within 3 days before fledging, and 7 owls were captured by hand up to 10 days after fledging. Weight in relation to fledging for 9 owls was analyzed. Behavioral development was observed by climbing to the nest cavity or by watching at a distance from a blind. Sonograms of 3 nestling calls were made. Food habits were determined by analysis of collected prey remains and regurgitated pellets. In 1973, 13 eggs hatched between 6 April and 9 April, and 12 owls fledged between 3 May and 10 May. In 1974, 9 eggs hatched between 28 March and 3 April, and 6 owls fledged between 26 April and 4 May. Twelve out of 18 owls fledged 31 days after hatching. Five owls died from various causes. An important behavioral development was the acquisition of fear and its gradual replacement by active hostility. The period in the nest just prior to fledging involved much exercise and activity. A positive relationship existed between development of the juvenal feathers and weight. The correlation coefficient of the relationship was 0.82 and was significant at the 0.001 level. Seven owls captured up to 10 days after fledging had an average weight loss of 27 g. The diet of the nestlings consisted of 47.9 percent birds, 29.3 percent mammals, 14.2 percent invertebrates, 7.9 percent fish, and 0.7 percent amphibians.
- ItemThe City of Macomb, Western Illinois State Teachers College and Camp Ellis During World War II(Western Illinois University, 1978-05) Hartnett, JohnThis thesis provides insight into an area that is too often ignored in American history. The problems encountered at home during World War II were many and complex. This study of the Macomb community provides unique insights to studies of this nature. The placement of Camp Ellis along with the input and influence of Western Illinois State Teachers College created many new social, economic and cultural adjustments for the community. Situations of this type remain relatively unexplored by contemporary historians. The research involved in this study deals almost exclusively with primary source materials. In particular, manuscript collections, personal correspondence, and oral interviews. The interviews and correspondence provide valuable insights unobtainable in secondary source materials. The value of oral history to a study of this nature is crucial. Those individuals selected provide a sampling of viewpoints from different sections of the Macomb community thus adding unique insights into all aspects of the thesis. This study demonstrates that a small Midwestern community shared many of the same problems that were experienced throughout the country, in particular the Japanese problem witnessed throughout the Western portion of the United States. Despite then, the community's isolated location and relatively small population the problems encountered in this Midwestern area were highly comparable to that of the entire nation.
- ItemThe Economic and Social Effects Of World War II On The City of Macomb, And McDonough County, Illinois(Western Illinois University, 1991-07) Bennett, Michael T.The purpose of this thesis is to examine how America's involvement in World War II affected life in Macomb and McDonough County. Many aspects of wartime life are analyzed to detect changes brought about by the war. The effects of the war fall into three broad categories: economic, social, and participation in the national war effort. This thesis attempts to demonstrate how the unique characteristics of the local area affected the wartime experiences of local residents. One chapter is devoted to each of these broad categories. Chapter I examines the impact of the war on the local economy and how these effects differed between the local area and the nation as a whole. Attention focuses on changes in the agricultural, industrial, and commercial sectors of the economy brought about by the war. The second chapter focuses on social changes within the community during the war. Changes in population characteristics, housing, crime, race, and education are analyzed and put into the context of changes nationwide. The third chapter centers on local participation in the war effort, and how this participation compared to that of the nation. Included in this chapter are discussions of rationing, scrap drives, military participation, bond sales, and civil defense issues. By examining historical events from a local perspective, studies such as this point out the differences as well as the similarities in the experiences of different segments of the American population. Such works help provide a richer and more complete understanding of the American experience in World War II.
- ItemThe Influence of Probation Officer Recommendations on Actual Sentencing Decisions(Western Illinois University, 1994-05) Zielke, JohnThe sentencing process is one of the most important phases in the criminal justice process. During this stage, the type, severity, and duration of control a convicted offender will endure is determined. Prior to sentencing, the judge often times will order a presentence investigation report which is prepared by a probation officer. This report provides the judge with pertinent information regarding the offender and offense itself. In some departments, a sentencing recommendation is submitted by the probation officer in the presentence report. One would expect judges, having little knowledge about the offender or offense itself, to view recommendations from the probation officer as important guideposts in their judicial decision making. Furthermore, one would expect a high level of agreement between probation officer's recommendations and actual sentences imposed. The research examined the relationship between probation officer's recommendations and judges actual sentencing decisions in the Seventh Judicial District, Department of Correctional Services, Davenport, Iowa. Document analysis and the testing of hypotheses were used to determine this relationship. Interviews with various judges, county attorneys, and probation officers, coupled with a Likert Scale Questionnaire attempted to determine factors which influenced decision making of the aforementioned respondents. This study found a statistically significant relationship between probation officer's recommendations and judges actual sentencing decisions. The factors that were most influential in the respondent's decision making were the offender's criminal history and seriousness of present offense. Furthermore, some judges viewed the recommendation submitted by the probation officer as influential in their decision making.