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- ItemA Study of the Board of Governors BA Degree Program(Western Illinois University, 1992-07) Baars, Judith, AnnThe traditional college student population--recent high school graduates--is rapidly being displaced by a more non-traditional population--older students, especially women, in need of vocational preparation to enter or move upward in the occupational marketplace (Patterson and Blank, 1985). In order to appropriately respond to this shift in student populations, post-secondary institutions must begin to explore and consider rudimentary student characteristics--demographic information, learner motivation/interest, learner needs, and institutional needs. Current information indicates Western Illinois University's (WIU) current male population accounts for 59 % of the total Board of Governors population (BGU Semi-Annual Report 6/91). This finding is contrary to the findings of Patterson and Blank (1985). This enrollment anomaly is of particular interest to WIU Board of Governors BA degree staffers, in that it may potentially impact in a number of policy areas: affirmative action, rules, regulations, resource allocations, recruitment and programming. By examining both (a) the demographic characteristics of Board of Governors BA degree students, as well as (b) their objectives and/or rationales for enrolling in the program, it may be possible to both explain the enrollment anomaly as well as identify self-reported needs of the non-traditional student. This study attempted to develop a student profile of non-traditional students enrolled in the Board of Governors BA degree program at both Western Illinois University and the other four BGU institutions (Chicago State University, Eastern Illinois University, Governors State University, Northeastern Illinois University). A questionnaire developed by the researcher was administered to a random stratified sample of 308 Board of Governors BA degree students enrolled at Western Illinois University. In addition to requesting demographic information, questions were constructed to assess what attracted the students to the program, what made them decide to go to school at this time, whether they were full-time or part-time students and their occupational status. Objectives and influences in their decision to enter the degree program were rated on a 'likert-scaled' instrument. This information was compared to anecdotal data for the other four Board of Governors BA degree programs. Questions addressed were: In terms of the issue of gender, does the student population attending the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program significantly differ from the student population attending the other four Board of Governors BA degree programs? Are there significant differences between the demographic characteristics of students in the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program and those students enrolled in the other four Board of Governors degree programs? Do self-reported rationales for males in the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program significantly differ from the rationales reported by females in the WIU Board of Governors BA degree program? It was determined that, overall, the five institutions displayed remarkably similar male-female ratios. In almost all cases males outnumbered females. It was determined that demographic characteristics in general resembled each other across institutions even though certain specific subtleties did emerge. However, these delete primarily with locale-related issues. The female and male responses for Board of Governors BA degree students at WIU were very similar on all factors, i.e., location, learning, social, personal, and work, with females placing slightly more importance on all areas except work. The issue of work did yield a significant difference on the Univariate F-test and indicated that males were more likely than females to rate issues related to work as being important. One conclusion that can be reached on the basis of this study is that occupation is the driving factor behind male enrollment in the Board of Governors BA degree program at WIU. A possible explanation for this may be that men are more likely than women to be employed in middle management positions, and if they do not have a bachelors degree, they may be encouraged to obtain one. They need this type of program, which is not campus-based, to finish this degree. Being employed in fulltime careers may make taking on-campus courses impossible. This degree, unlike many non-traditional degrees, allows for flexibility in the manner in which credit is earned.
- ItemAnti-Semitism in the New Deal Era: The Case of Father Coughlin(Western Illinois University, 1970-07) Wolfe, Thomas AnthonyThis study is a look at the causes, manifestations, and ramifications of racial and religious bigotry in the United States--through the medium of Father Charles E. Coughlin. As a by-product of this study, perhaps one can gain a clearer insight into the workings of a demagogue-a name that clearly fits this famous "radio priest" from Royal Oak, Michigan, Anti-Semitism has always had its followers in the United States, especially in the Northeast where most Jews live, but elsewhere as well. The great influx of southern and eastern European Jews around the turn of the twentieth century found it difficult to assimilate because of their markedly different cultures--even when they chose to do so. Jews did progress in the United States, but they did so at a time of economic depression and fear of yet another war--conditions that exacerbated tensions rather than abated them. As an anti-Semitic propagandist, Coughlin was, for a time, second in notoriety only to the German-American Bund. He was an embarrassment to his church, the administration, and the nation at large. His activities helped create anti-Catholic hostility from many areas at a time when the bitter Smith-Hoover campaign of 1928 was all too fresh in the memory of many Americans. A serious misconception concerning the structure of the Catholic Church manifested itself during Coughlin's time. This was the idea that the Church was rigidly unified to the point that the views of one priest must also be the views of his superiors, including the Pope. American non-Catholics in the 1930's never really understood just who a priest's superiors were and how much authority they had. In fact, the Roman Catholic Church is about as unified as the Democratic Party. Within the entire hierarchy of the Church, there were but two people who could silence Coughlin--his bishop, and the Pope. This misconception led some Americans to wonder if the Catholic Church were not basically antisemitic. Others wondered the same thing about Christianity itself. What little evidence there is on the subject unavoidably leads to the unhappy conclusion that Christian churches, directly or indirectly, have nourished various notions of anti-Semitism. Thus, it is not so surprising that Coughlin and his followers--mainly Catholics but almost all Christians--should have been anti-Semitic. In the case of Father Coughlin, it would seem that his seminary training may well have nurtured anti-Semitism. His religious training had been rather narrow, and it is reflected in his later writings and speeches. He would always reject as necessarily evil anything or anybody non-Christian. Americans have been by no means the first people to entertain notions of anti-Semitism. Indeed, everything that Hitler did to the Jews during his reign of terror had been done earlier by Christians--save, of course, mass annihilation, and even at that, there were many blood baths, notably the Russian pogroms. As soon as Christianity had been introduced to Rome, the Church began placing restrictions on Jews. These varied but increased in intensity. The idea was to keep Jews from "contaminating" Christian life. This practice continued through the centuries. The depression created fertile ground for many demagogues, but none had more success than Father Coughlin, whose popularity among millions of radio listeners in the early 1930's had been matched by very few men. Coughlin's ambition soon over-reached itself. He renounced Roosevelt in 1936; his handpicked candidate, William Lemke, suffered a resounding defeat at the polls; and Coughlin had to search for a new tactic if he ever again were to match his earlier popularity. Coughlin's anti-Semitic campaign began in 1937, reached a popularity peak in 1938 and early 1939, then slowly declined until his radio program was forced off the air in 1940, and his magazine was forced from the mails within a few months after Pearl Harbor. His basic theory about the Jews was deceptively simple. Communism had been the creation of Jews who have worked diligently to spread it everywhere. Nazism was merely a defense mechanism against communism and could never be as bad as communism--the living antichrist. This message Coughlin never tired of reiterating. Some people took the priest seriously and were moved to form groups like the Christian Front. Many ugly incidents were recorded, especially in New York City. Coughlin's forced retirement robbed a mass movement of its leader, but by 1942 the movement had already spent itself. The chief things to be gained from this study are a greater awareness of the dangers of mass movements, whether they are characterized by racial or religious bigotry coupled with demagoguery or by some other manifestation. It is equally important to know what causes them, for knowledge of their causes is surely half their cure.
- ItemA Secondary Data Analysis of Staff Reaction to the Transition From a Linear Jail to a Direct Supervision Model in Kane County, Illinois(Western Illinois University, 2010-04) Woodruff, Lynne MarieThe Kane County Sheriff's Office Jail in Illinois had traditionally been of the linear design for well over a hundred years. Linear means that the cells are arranged along a common hallway more or less in a line, resulting in fewer staff necessary to supervise the inmates. One officer would be responsible for several cellblocks daily, checking on each at least every 30 minutes. This meant that the inmates were on their own basically for 30 minutes until an officer came by to check on them. Not surprisingly, rule infractions and violence were common, as was vandalism. Officers spent years working in this environment, in which the more violent an inmate was or the more severe the charge, the greater the number of bars and doors separating the inmate from the officers. Officers complained to each other about feelings of stress and burnout from working in this environment. Correctional officer stress has been researched in depth over the years. Stress can lead to burnout of the officers. Burnout consists of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and personal accomplishment. In 2006, Kane County officials knew that a new jail was needed due to the deterioration and overcrowding of the old jail. The officials chose a facility based on the Direct Supervision model, in which officers are assigned to each cellblock or pod and stay inside with the inmates. Officers and staff began to complain to each other about the chosen design and how they feared an increase in stress and violent working environment in the new facility. In Neutralizing the Negative Impact of Organizational Change during the Transition Process, the author wrote about addressing staff anxiety when transitioning into a new facility. (Smith, 1993) However, she did not address the impact moving to the new facility would have on the officers' levels of stress and burnout after the move. Nor did the article address the feelings of officer safety in the new facility. It appears that there is no research into the impact of moving into a new facility with a new direct supervision philosophy on the officers' level of stress, burnout and feeling of safety. Administrators were curious to see what the impact on officers and staff was during the transition from linear to direct supervision facilities. Since no research was found on this specific event, KCSO commissioned an internal study of the effects of stress and burnout on staff during the transition from a linear model to a direct supervision model. The surveys included questions about feelings of stress, burnout and safety. They also asked for background information about the respondents including gender, race, age, length of service, rank and education level to see if any of these factors were significant in the officers' feelings of stress, burnout or safety. Officers and staff were surveyed prior to and one year after the move to the new facility. This researcher analyzed these two surveys and the results are presented in this research document.
- ItemChinese Settlement in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri(Western Illinois University, 1973-01) Willis, Reginald LevisThe purpose of this thesis is to examine the settlement patterns of Chinese in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri from 1870 to the present time. Three hypotheses were formed after preliminary studies of census data: (l) Chinese are clustered in university communities and transportation centers, (2) Chinese have not settled in large numbers in industrial centers, and (3) after an initial settlement in a community, Chinese tend to persist in that community. Several cities with above or below average numbers of Chinese were identified by regression analysis and investigated. The information obtained in these community studies supported the three hypotheses on Chinese settlement in the study area. Chinese are a small part of the general American population and the majority live in large cities. Chinatowns within the study area are present only in the two largest cities, Chicago and St. Louis. However, some Chinese have located in small and medium sized cities in Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, and Missouri. The function of a city is important in attracting Chinese; places with government agencies or large universities attract more than industrial centers. The character of the Chinese population has changed through time. The majority of Chinese in the area from 1870 until 1910 were laundrymen whose families remained in China. Restaurant workers and laundrymen were the largest element in the Chinese population between 1910 and 1950. Chinese professional men and students became an important part of the population after 1950. The number of women increased rapidly after the Second World War, and the Chinese population in the study area now has a normal ratio of men to women. Chinese settlement was affected by the immigration laws restricting immigration. The occupational shifts are a result of the government policy of admitting certain classes of immigrants.
- ItemThe Influence of Probation Officer Recommendations on Actual Sentencing Decisions(Western Illinois University, 1994-05) Zielke, JohnThe sentencing process is one of the most important phases in the criminal justice process. During this stage, the type, severity, and duration of control a convicted offender will endure is determined. Prior to sentencing, the judge often times will order a presentence investigation report which is prepared by a probation officer. This report provides the judge with pertinent information regarding the offender and offense itself. In some departments, a sentencing recommendation is submitted by the probation officer in the presentence report. One would expect judges, having little knowledge about the offender or offense itself, to view recommendations from the probation officer as important guideposts in their judicial decision making. Furthermore, one would expect a high level of agreement between probation officer's recommendations and actual sentences imposed. The research examined the relationship between probation officer's recommendations and judges actual sentencing decisions in the Seventh Judicial District, Department of Correctional Services, Davenport, Iowa. Document analysis and the testing of hypotheses were used to determine this relationship. Interviews with various judges, county attorneys, and probation officers, coupled with a Likert Scale Questionnaire attempted to determine factors which influenced decision making of the aforementioned respondents. This study found a statistically significant relationship between probation officer's recommendations and judges actual sentencing decisions. The factors that were most influential in the respondent's decision making were the offender's criminal history and seriousness of present offense. Furthermore, some judges viewed the recommendation submitted by the probation officer as influential in their decision making.