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- ItemMedia's Portrayal of an "Ideal" Body Image: Consequences for Young Women's Body Satisfaction and Self-Esteem(Western Illinois University, 2007) Hemberger, SarahMedia's portrayal of women, particularly body size and shape, has drastically changed over the past decades, which may be a contributing factor in lower body satisfaction and self-esteem in adolescent females. This study examines the relationship between mass media's portrayal of an ideal body image and the ratings of young adolescent and older adolescent females' body satisfaction and self-esteem. The motivation used for reading magazines was examined as well as a number of beauty and fashion magazines read. A total of 49 young adolescent females (ages 10-14) and 71 older adolescent females (ages 18-22) were given four questionnaires: demographics questionnaire, reading motivations questionnaire, Body Parts Satisfaction Scale, and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Results suggest that those who reported using self-evaluation as a reading motivation had lower scores on self-reports of body satisfaction and self-esteem. Young adolescent females do not use self-evaluation as a reading motivation more often than older adolescent females. However, older adolescent females reported using self-improvement more often. Young adolescent females reported higher satisfaction with body image and more self-esteem than older adolescent females. These results suggest that young adolescents do not have lower body satisfaction and self-esteem than older adolescents. However, using self-evaluation to read beauty and fashion magazines can negatively affect body satisfaction and self-esteem. This information can help adolescents learn how to use media for comparison in a way that does not affect body satisfaction or self-esteem. It can also influence the media to be concerned about the effects on the current ideal image of adolescents' body satisfaction.
- ItemMotoric and Cognitive Effects of Risperidone and Haloperidol in an Animal Model of Schizophrenia(Western Illinois University, 2007) Cook, AudreyMotor disturbances (also known as extrapyramidal side effects) and cognitive deficits are common side effects of antipsychotic drug therapies. Research has suggested that the prevalence rate of motor side effects is greater in typical antipsychotic drug therapies than in atypical antipsychotic drug therapies. The aims of the present study are to evaluate the ketamine-model of schizophrenia and determine whether the difference in the prevalence of motor side effects between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs is due to the drug type itself or the typical dosage levels of these drugs. Forty, healthy, male Long-Evans hooded rats, Rattus norvegicus, served as the subjects for this study. The rats were approximately 120 days old. In order to observe motor disturbances and cognitive deficits, the rats were divided into four treatment groups: the control group, the ketamine group, the ketamine/haloperidol group, and the ketamine/risperidone group. The rats were put through an Alternative Task (t-maze), an Open-Field Activity Task, and a Swim Test. Significant differences in motor and cognitive abilities among the four treatment groups for each task were indicated by Kruskal-Wallis tests and differentiated by Mann-Whitney U post-hoc tests. Results indicate that the ketamine-model of schizophrenia is valid. A higher prevalence of motor side effects was indicated in the rats treated with the typical antipsychotic drug.
- ItemThe Effect of Number of Sexual Partners on the Sacredness of Sex, Sexual Anxiety, Endorsement of Promiscuity, and Time to Sex(Western Illinois University, 2007) Kandlik, StephanieThis study looked at number of sexual partners participants had had, the extent to which they believed that sex is sacred, their sexual anxiety, their endorsement of sexual promiscuity, and the time to sex in their most recent relationship. Two studies were carried out. The hypothesis tested in Study One was that a negative relationship would be found between the number of sexual partners participants had had and the time between first meeting their most recent partner romantically and engaging in sex and that this relationship would be mediated by the belief that sex is not sacred, low sexual anxiety, and the endorsement of sexual promiscuity. College students filled out measures of the extent to which they believed that sex is sacred, their sexual anxiety, their endorsement of sexual promiscuity, and the time to sex in their most recent relationship. Number of sexual partners was not correlated with time to sex; thus the hypothesis was not supported and mediational analyses were not carried out However, number of sexual partners was correlated with the belief that sex was not sacred, low sexual anxiety, and endorsement of sexual promiscuity. Study Two was carried out to test the hypotheses that number of sexual partners was causally related to the belief that sex is not sacred, low sexual anxiety, and the endorsement of sexual promiscuity. To do this, participants filled out measures of number of sexual partners, the belief that sex is not sacred, low sexual anxiety, and the endorsement of sexual promiscuity at the beginning and end of a semester. Number of sexual partners at the beginning of the semester was correlated with the belief that sex was not sacred at the end of the semester and vice versa. Since the first correlation was not larger than the second, causation could not be inferred. Similar analyses were carried out for low sexual anxiety and endorsement of sexual promiscuity. Although number of sexual partners was found to be correlated with the belief that sex was not sacred and endorsement of sexual promiscuity, no evidence of causation was found. Thus the hypotheses of Study Two were not supported.
- ItemThe Investigation of Anxiety Sensitivity and Its Relationship with Attachment Among A College Population(Western Illinois University, 2007) Margentina, Samantha J.The prevalence of anxiety has led to the investigation of anxiety sensitivity as a predictor of future psychopathologies. This notion has fueled an examination of a: relationship between attachment styles and anxiety sensitivity in a sample of 76 college students from the Western Illinois University population. The Experiences in Close Relationship-revised (ECR-R; Fraley, Waller & Brennan, 2000) was used to categorize participants into four attachment styles: secure, fearful, preoccupied, and dismissive. These categories were validated by the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment scale (IPP A; Armsden & Greenberg, 1989). Anxiety Sensitivity was evaluated by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI, Peterson & Reiss, 1992) and was validated by the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State and Trait scales (ST AI-T; Spielberger, et al., 1983). Lastly, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (POSS; Shear, et al, 1997) was implemented to explore participants that may have a vulnerability to acquiring Panic Disorder in the future. Results in this study supported the hypothesis that individuals that are fearful or preoccupied in attachment had higher levels of anxiety sensitivity than individuals in secure and dismissive attachment. Lastly, the Panic Disorder Severity Scale highlighted those individuals with high anxiety sensitivity as individuals that may be at risk for psychopathologies.
- ItemThe Self-Conversion Phenomenon as A Treatment for Behavior Change(Western Illinois University, 2007) Mazias, Melissa G.The self-conversion phenomenon states that when one tries to convince another, one convinces themselves. This phenomenon can be utilized to make treatment methods more effective. This method can be used as an aid in alcohol, drug, and criminal treatments for improving outcomes and everyday lifestyle changes including weight loss. Utilizing this method could make current treatment programs less costly, more available, and more effective. Participants were introductory psychology students attending a mid-sized, Midwestern university. Participants filled out a demographic questionnaire and an attitude assessment before the experiment. Participants were asked to give speeches to convince a student in which they believed was at risk for alcohol related problems. They were then asked to take another version of the attitudes assessment. The difference in scores between the two assessments was the measure of self-conversion. The control group gave the same speech to a video camera. The hypothesis was that the experimental group would have a larger measure of self-conversion. The study showed that the hypothesis was correct for four of the assessment items.